Current Affairs 19th July2017

 

1.  RIGHT   TO   PRIVACY – AADHAAR   CASE

  •  The Supreme Court of India has set up a nine-judge bench to decide if the much-debated issue of the right to privacy is a fundamental right under the Constitution.
  •  The new bench was set up on Tuesday by the five-judge bench which had to look into the validity of Aadhaar case and the right to privacy attached to the case.
  • The SC is now faced with two judgements of 1954 and 1962 which had said that the right to privacy was not a fundamental right.

MP Sharma and Ors vs. Satish Chandra, District Magistrate, Delhi, and Ors. (1954)

The case related to search and seizure of documents of some Dalmia group companies following a probe into affairs of Ms Dalmia Jain Airways Ltd, a group concern, which was registered in July 1946 but liquidated in June 1952.

In their writ petitions under article 32 before the Supreme Court, the aggrieved parties challenged the constitutional validity of the searches saying their private records were taken away.They also claimed that the searches violated their fundamental rights under Articles 19(1)(f) — right to acquire, hold and dispose of property — and 20(3) — protection against self-incrimination.

However, the court observed, “A search and seizure is, therefore, only a temporary interference with the right to hold the premises searched and the articles seized. Statutory regulation in this behalf is necessary and reasonable restriction cannot per se be considered to be unconstitutional. The damage, if any caused by such temporary interference if found to be in excess of legal authority is a matter for redress in other proceedings.”

The court further said, “fundamental right to privacy, analogous to the American Fourth Amendment, we have no justification to import it, into a totally different fundamental right.”

Kharak Singh vs. the State of UP and Ors. (of 1962)

The case was about a petitioner, who was earlier released due to lack of evidence against him in a dacoity case. The police later opened a “history sheet” against him and also put him on a surveillance. The aggrieved petitioner approached the apex court claiming infringement of his fundamental rights. In his writ petition,  Singh claimed the surveillance violated his fundamental rights under Articles 19(1)(d) — right to freedom of movement — and 21 — protection of life and personal liberty.

However, the top court observed, “The right of privacy is not a guaranteed right under our Constitution and therefore the attempt to ascertain the movements of an individual which is merely a manner in which privacy is invaded is not an infringement of a fundamental right guaranteed by Part III.”

 

2.STATES   CAN   LEGISLATE   ON   CATTLE   PROTECTION-  CENTRE

  • In a recent discussion in Rajya Sabha,the government has told the House that State legislatures have “exclusive” powers to enact laws for preservation of cattle.
  • Rajasthan High Court vide order dated 31.5.2017 advised that cow should be declared a national animal and directed the state government of Rajasthan to take steps for preservation and conservation of cows and for declaring cow as a national animal.
  • Under the distribution of legislative powers between Union of India and states under article 246(3) of the Constitution, the preservation of cattle is a matter on which the legislature of the states have exclusive powers to legislate.

ARTICLE 246

246. Subject matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States

(1) Notwithstanding anything in clauses ( 2 ) and ( 3 ), Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List I in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the Union List)
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause ( 3 ), Parliament, and, subject to clause ( 1 ), the Legislature of any State also, have power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List III in the Seventh Schedule (in this Constitution referred to as the Concurrent List)
(4) Parliament has power to make laws with respect to any matter for any part of the territory of India not included (in a State) notwithstanding that such matter is a matter enumerated in the State List