Current Affairs 28th July 2017

 

1.  NEW   SPECIES   OF   LANTERNSHARK   DISCOVERED

  • Scientists have discovered new species of glow-in-the-dark shark living 1,000 feet below the Pacific Ocean off the coast of the northwestern Hawaiian islands.
  • It has been named Etmopterus lailae and belongs to lanternshark family.

UNIQUE   FEATURES   OF   Etmopterus lailae

  • It has an unusually large nose, weighs a little less than a kilo and measures less than a foot.

WHAT   ARE   LANTERNSHARKS  

  • The are a family( Etmopteridae) of sharks in the order Squaliformes, commonly known as lantern sharks.
  • Their name comes from the presence of light-producing photophores on their bodies.A photophore is a glandular organ that appears as luminous spots.
  • The members of this family are small, under 90 cm (35 in) long, and are found in deep waters worldwide.
  •  The 45 species are placed in five genera.
  • Three-quarters of the species are in the genus Etmopterus.

 

2.  SURFNET

  • Scientists  have developed a new artificial intelligence (AI) software called SurfNet that can create three dimensional (3D) models from 2D photographs.
  • SurfNet Software can reconstruct model in 3D using hundreds of thousands of 2D shapes of objects.
  •  It utilizes machine learning to analyze 2D shapes and convert them into projected 3D forms.

WHAT   IS   ARTIFICIAL   INTELLIGENCE ?

  •  Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.
  • Particular applications of AI include expert systems, speech recognition and machine vision.
  • AI was coined by John McCarthy, an American computer scientist, in 1956 at The Dartmouth Conference where the discipline was born.
  • Today, it is an umbrella term that encompasses everything from robotic process automation to actual robotics.
  • It has gained prominence recently due, in part, to big data, or the increase in speed, size and variety of data businesses are now collecting.
  • AI can perform tasks such as identifying patterns in the data more efficiently than humans, enabling businesses to gain more insight out of their data.

TYPES   OF   AI

  •  Weak AI – also known as narrow AI, is an AI system that is designed and trained for a particular task. Virtual personal assistants, such as Apple’s Siri, are a form of weak AI.
  • Strong AI – also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized human cognitive abilities so that when presented with an unfamiliar task, it has enough intelligence to find a solution.

APPLICATIONS   OF   AI

  • AI in healthcare. The biggest bets are on improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. Companies are applying machine learning to make better and faster diagnoses than humans. One of the best known healthcare technologies is IBM Watson. It understands natural language and is capable of responding to questions asked of it.
  • AI in business. Robotic process automation is being applied to highly repetitive tasks normally performed by humans. Machine learning algorithms are being integrated into analytics and CRM platforms to uncover information on how to better serve customers. Chatbots have been incorporated into websites to provide immediate service to customers.
  • AI in education. AI can automate grading, giving educators more time. AI can assess students and adapt to their needs, helping them work at their own pace. AI tutors can provide additional support to students, ensuring they stay on track. AI could change where and how students learn, perhaps even replacing some teachers.
  • AI in finance. AI applied to personal finance applications, such as Mint or Turbo Tax, is upending financial institutions. Applications such as these could collect personal data and provide financial advice.
  • AI in law. The discovery process, sifting through of documents, in law is often overwhelming for humans. Automating this process is a better use of time and a more efficient process. Startups are also building question-and-answer computer assistants that can sift programmed-to-answer questions by examining the taxonomy and ontology associated with a database.
  • AI in manufacturing. This is an area that has been at the forefront of incorporating robots into the workflow. Industrial robots used to perform single tasks and were separated from human workers, but as the technology advanced that changed.

 

3.  BRICS   LABOUR   AND   EMPLOYMENT   MINISTERS   MEET  2017

  • Key outcome -They agreed to work together to ensure stable employment and better quality of life for their people.
  • The meeting was held in Chongqing, China.
  • They passed BRICS Labour and Employment Ministerial Declaration.
  • Areas covered under the declaration consist of Governance in the Future of Work, Universal and sustainable social security systems, Skills for development in BRICS, BRICS Social Security Cooperation Framework, BRICS Network of Labour Research Institutions and BRICS entrepreneurship research.

KNOW   ABOUT   BRICS

  • BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  • Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”), before the induction of South Africa in 2010.
  •  The BRICS members are all leading developing or newly industrialized countries, but they are distinguished by their large, sometimes fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional affairs; all five are G-20 members.
  • Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits.
  • As of 2015, the five BRICS countries represent over 3.6 billion people, or about 40% of the world population; all five members are in the top 25 of the world by population, and four are in the top 10.
  • The five nations have a combined nominal GDP of US$16.6 trillion, equivalent to approximately 22% of the gross world product, combined GDP (PPP) of around US$37 trillion and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves.

 

4.  NO   ARREST   IN   DOWRY   CASES   TILL   CHARGES   ARE   VERIFIED – SUPREME   COURT

  • In a recent judgement Supreme Court has directed that no arrest or coercive action should be taken on  complaints dealing with anti-dowry law without ascertaining the veracity of allegations.
  • Supreme Court acknowledged a growing trend among women involved in marital discord to abuse Section 498A of IPC to rope in their husbands’ relatives — including parents, minor children, siblings and grandparents — in criminal cases.
  • The Supreme Court directed all states to set up family welfare committee (FWC) in each district and tasked them with testing the veracity of every complaint.
  • The bench ruled that all such complaints received by the police or the magistrate must be referred to the family welfare committee and no action should be taken against the husband and the in-laws till the committee gave its report after interacting with the parties.
  • Section 498A in The Indian Penal Code- Husband or relative of husband of a woman subjecting her to cruelty—Whoever, being the husband or the relative of the husband of a woman, subjects such woman to cruelty shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.