Current Affairs 25th Sep 2017




  •  At the fourth Northeast Connectivity Summit in Kohima from September 22 to 23, a representative of the Embassy of Japan said Tokyo would invest in the region’s infrastructure, education and people-to-people sectors.
  •  The northeastern region is located at a strategically and economically important juncture between India and Southeast Asia as well as within the Bimstec (Bay of Bengal) community.
  • For the northeast, Japan had undertaken works on road connectivity, energy projects, water supply and sanitation, forest resources management, Japanese language education and post-war reconciliation, which aimed to build a deeper understanding of the actions of Japanese forces in the region during the Second World War.
  • The summit included diplomatic participation from Bhutan, Russia, Bangladesh, Laos and Thailand.
  • The next edition of the summit will be held in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh, which borders China.





  • The government’s massive scheme to analyse the soil quality of farms across the country may get a technology boost.
  • The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is looking to link the programme with a research project at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay that uses sophisticated imaging techniques and can picture the nutrient balance of a patch of land without necessarily collecting soil sample.


  • Hyper spectral imaging means analysing extremely detailed images of an object — frequently to the scale of nanometres — and then reconstructing its constituent elements.
  • Using custom-developed algorithms, satellite-images, or those taken from low flying planes or drones, can be used to calculate the proportion of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous — the three most vital nutrients — as well as other minerals in the soil and be used to gauge its health.


  • Soil Health Card Scheme is a scheme launched by the Government of India in February 2015.
  • Soil Health card (SHC) is a printed report card issued to farmers in once in three years indicating the status of his soil in terms of 12 parameters.
  • It is also accompanied by an advice on the various fertilizers and other soil amendments he is suppose to make.
  •  SHC is field-specific detailed report of soil fertility status and other important soil parameters that affect crop productivity.
  • Details in a Soil Health Card includes-
    • Information regarding Soil Fertility
    • Dosage of fertilizer application in crops.
    • Information on soil amendments of saline or alkaline soil; and
    • Recommendation on integrated nutrient management.
  • The 12 parameters tested are:Major Nutrients
    • pH (Soil Reaction; acidity / alkalinity of the soil)
    • Total Dissolved salts
    • Organic Carbon
    • Phosphorous
    • Potash

    Minor Nutrients

    • Sulphur
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium


    • Zinc
    • Ferrous
    • Manganese
    • Copper
  • The Test Results are shown with colour codes for ease of understanding.Green= Sufficient (General Recommendation Dose (-) 30%)

    Yellow= Moderate (General Recommendation Dose)

    Red = deficient (General Recommendation Dose (+) 30%)

    Violet = Acidic / Sodic (concentration of sodium or salt indicating salinity) /Alkaline





  • The BSE website mentions a list of more than 900 companies that are monitored under the Graded Surveillance Measure, designed by market regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

What is the Graded Surveillance Measure?

SEBI introduced the measure to keep a tab on securities that witness an abnormal price rise that is not commensurate with financial health and fundamentals of the company such as earnings, book value, price to earnings ratio among others.

Why did SEBI bring in the measure?

The underlying principle behind the graded surveillance framework is to alert and protect investors trading in a security, which is seeing abnormal price movements. SEBI may put shares of companies under the measure for suspected price rigging or under the ambit of ‘shell companies’. The measure would provide a heads up to market participants that they need to be extra cautious and diligent while dealing in such securities put under surveillance.

How the Graded Surveillance Measure works?

Once a firm is identified for surveillance it goes through six stages with corresponding surveillance actions and the restrictions on trading in those securities gets higher progressively. In the first stage the securities are put in the trade-to-trade segment (meaning no speculative trading is allowed and delivery of shares and payment of consideration amount are mandatory). A maximum of 5% movement in share price is allowed.

In the second stage, in addition to the trade-to-trade segment, the buyer of the security has to put 100% of trade value as additional surveillance deposit. The deposit would be retained by the exchanges for a period of five months and refunded in a phased manner.

In the third stage, trading is permitted only once a week ie every Monday, apart from the buyer putting 100% of the trade value as additional surveillance deposit.

In the fourth stage, trading would be allowed once a week and the surveillance deposit increases to 200% of the trade value.

In the fifth stage, trading would be permitted only once a month (first Monday of the month) with additional deposit of 200%.

In the sixth and final stage, there are maximum restrictions.

Trading is permitted only once a month at this stage, with no upward movement allowed in price. Also, the additional surveillance deposit would be 200%.

Will securities remain permanently in the Graded Surveillance list?

There would a quarterly review of securities. Based on criteria, the securities would be moved from a higher stage to a lower stage in a sequential manner.