1 . Aditya-L1
Source – Hindu
- Sometime in 2019 or 2020 India will send ISRO’s solar mission Aditya-L1 to a vantage point in space, known as the L1 Lagrange point, to do imaging and study of the sun.
- This launch will happen in the early part of the next solar cycle – an occurrence in which sunspots form on the face of the sun, growing in size and number and eventually diminishing, all over a period of eleven years.
- It will be a mission of many firsts.
- The so-called L1 point is 1.5 million kilometres away.
- Here, due to the delicate balance of gravitational forces, the satellite will require very little energy to maintain its orbit.
- Also it will not be eclipsed from the sun.
- The 1,500-kg class satellite will be programmed to orbit this point and image the sun’s magnetic field from space for the very first time in the world.
- Few other space agencies have successfully placed their satellites at this location.
- Among the few, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a NASA-ESA collaboration involving America and Europe, and NASA’s Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) are at L1 exclusively to study the sun and space weather, respectively.
- Aditya-L1 is expected to be the very first to study from space two months from the time of launch, the magnetic field of the sun’s corona.
- It will be the first 100% Indian mission which will not only negotiate a challenging orbit, but will also benefit the global scientific community in understanding the sun.
- The mission will carry seven payloads,consisting of a coronagraph, equipment that will image the sun using ultraviolet filters, X-ray spectrometers, and particle samplers all being made within the country.
- The largest payload, or instrument, aboard the satellite, will be the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VLEC). This can view the sun more closely than has been done before even by SOHO.
- With this advantage, the instrument has the capacity to observe the loop-like magnetic structures that form in the corona, the outer layer of the sun.
- This will be the first experiment to measure the coronal magnetic field from a space platform. This was not even done by SOHO.
- Apart from this, the two in situ particle-detection payloads – Aditya Solar wind Particle EXperiment (ASPEX) and Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA) will study aspects that affect space weather. the origin of solar wind ions, their reaction to coronal mass ejections, the distribution of these in the heliosphere – the space around the sun that extends up to Pluto – and so on.
- The payloads alone will weigh close to 250 kg. The biggest of these is the VLEC, about 170 kg. The next is SUIT, weighing around 35 kg; others are much lighter.
2 . Space Activities Bill, 2017
Source – Hindu
What is it?
It is a proposed Bill to promote and regulate the space activities of India. The new Bill encourages the participation of non-governmental/private sector agencies in space activities in India under the guidance and authorisation of the government through the Department of Space.
When, where, who?
The draft was posted on the website of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on November 21, 2017.
Why has it been posted?
The Bill seeks comments on the draft from stakeholders and the public. ISRO has given a month’s time to read the 20-page draft and send comments.
What does the Bill propose?
- The provisions of this Act shall apply to every citizen of India and to all sectors engaged in any space activity in India or outside India
- A non-transferable licence shall be provided by the Central Government to any person carrying out commercial space activity
- The Central Government will formulate the appropriate mechanism for licencing, eligibility criteria, and fees for licence.
- The government will maintain a register of all space objects (any object launched or intended to be launched around the earth) and develop more space activity plans for the country
- It will provide professional and technical support for commercial space activity and regulate the procedures for conduct and operation of space activity
- It will ensure safety requirements and supervise the conduct of every space activity of India and investigate any incident or accident in connection with the operation of a space activity.
- It will share details about the pricing of products created by space activity and technology with any person or any agency in a prescribed manner.
- If any person undertakes any commercial space activity without authorisation they shall be punished with imprisonment up to 3 years or fined more than ₹1 crore or both.
3 . Constitution Day (National Law Day)
Source – pib
- Constitution Day (National Law Day), also known as Samvidhan Divas, is celebrated in India on 26 November every year to commemorate the adoption of Constitution of India.
- On 26 November 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India, and it came into effect on 26 January 1950.
- The Government of India declared 26 November as Constitution Day on 19 November 2015 by a gazette notification.
- The Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi made the declaration on 11 October 2015 while laying the foundation stone of the B. R. Ambedkar memorial in Mumbai.
- The year of 2015 was the 125th birth anniversary of Ambedkar, who had chaired the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly and played a pivotal role in the drafting of the constitution.
- Previously this day was celebrated as Law Day.
- 26 November was chosen to spread the importance of the constitution and to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.