1 . Naga talks still in process – interlocutor
Source – Hindu
Naga interlocutor R.N. Ravi told a parliamentary panel here on Monday that “no deadline” could be fixed for the Naga peace agreement and talks were on with at least five or six Naga groups other than the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah).
On August 3, 2015, Mr. Ravi had signed a “framework agreement” on behalf of the Union government with the NSCN (Isak-Muivah) group to end the decades-old Naga insurgency.
Open to all
The Government of India wanted to take all the Naga groups on board.The Naga interlocutor said negotiations were still on and the Government of India was not comfortable with only one or two main groups such as the NSCN-IM coming on board, but wanted to take into the fold the other groups as well.
- The NSCN-IM has been fighting for ‘Greater Nagaland’ or Nagalim — it wants to extend Nagaland’s borders by including Naga-dominated areas in neighbouring Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh, to unite 1.2 million Nagas.
- The map of Greater Nagalim on the NSCN(IM) website comprising “all Naga-inhabited areas” shows a 1,20,000 sq km sprawl across the Northeast and Myanmar.
- It covers a sizeable portion of Assam’s Tinsukia, Charaideo, Sivasagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao districts; all of Longding, Tirap, Changlang, Lohit and Namsai districts in Arunachal; and large parts of Manipur’s Ukhrul, Senapati, Chandel and Tamenglong districts.
- The area of Nagaland state is only 16,527 sq km, a fraction of the NSCN(IM)’s “Greater Nagalim”.
- “Naga territory” existed with “Full Sovereignty” before the advent of the British colonial expansionism in 1881.
- In 1947, the people of India and the Naga territory became independent from British rule.
- As early as January 10, 1929, Naga had informed the British government that they would not join the Union of India.
- Nagaland declared independence on 14th of August 1947, one day before India gets independence from the British.
- After India regain sovereignty from British colonial rule on 15th-August-1947, India included Nagaland which was previously known as Naga Hills (an independent nation) as part of Assam.
- The existing Nagaland state is only a small part of Naga Hills and huge portion of Naga Hills was/is placed in Manipur, Assam and Arunachal.
- The land of Nagas was divided among two countries, India and Myanmar.
Nagaland Rebel Groups
- Naga National Council, a political organization active in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which became separatist under Angami Zapu Phizo.
- Naga National Council (Adino) – NNC (Adino): the oldest political Naga organisation, now led by the daughter of Naga rebel A.Z. Phizo.
- ‘National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)‘: formed on January 31, 1980 by Isak Chishi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S. S. Khaplang. They want to establish a ‘Greater Nagaland’ (‘Nagalim’ or the People’s Republic of Nagaland) based on Mao Tse Tung’s model.
- ‘National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)‘: formed on April 30, 1988, its goal is to establish a ‘greater Nagaland’ based on ethnicity, comprising the Naga-dominated areas within India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.
- Naga Federal Government– separatist movement active in Nagaland during the 1970s. After its leader was captured and the headquarters destroyed, NFG’s activities decreased.
- Naga Federal Army-separatist guerrilla organization active in the 1970s. Several hundred members of NFA reportedly have received training in China.
2 . Government can’t be compelled to frame a Law – SC
Source – Hindu
- The Supreme Court on Monday said it respected the government’s “political compulsions” and would not compel it to ratify the UN Convention against Torture, or command it to frame a standalone anti-torture legislation.
- A Bench, led by Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, refrained from passing any positive order on a public interest litigation petition filed by the former Union Law Minister Ashwini Kumar for a standalone anti-torture law.
View of Law Commission
- The Law Commission has recommended that the Centre ratify the United Nations Convention against Torture and frame a standalone anti-torture law, making the state responsible for any injury inflicted by its agents on citizens.
- The commission has said the state should not claim immunity for the actions of its officers or agents.
- In its 273rd report handed over to the Law Ministry on October 30, the commission has proposed the Prevention of Torture Bill, 2017, which gives a wide definition to torture, not limited to physical pain but also including “inflicting injury, either intentionally or involuntarily, or even an attempt to cause such an injury, which will include physical, mental or psychological in nature”.
United Nations Convention against Torture
- The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
- The Convention requires states to take effective measures to prevent torture in any territory under their jurisdiction, and forbids states to transport people to any country where there is reason to believe they will be tortured.
- The text of the Convention was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1984 and, following ratification by the 20th state party, it came into force on 26 June 1987.
- 26 June is now recognized as the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, in honor of the Convention.
- Since the convention’s entry into force, the absolute prohibition against torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment has become accepted as a principle of customary international law.
- As of August 2017, the Convention has 162 state parties.
3 . Data protection law in making
Source – Hindu
The government on Monday released a white paper looking into the scope of a data protection law, and opened up for public discussion till December 31, issues pertaining to its ambit, what constitutes personal data, what is sensitive data, and the international applicability of such a law.
- The B.N. Srikrishna committee, set up under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, in the white paper recommended that the law be applicable to all processing of personal data that takes place within India or by an entity that has a presence in India.
- However, the paper noted that it may be necessary to make the law applicable to all kinds of processing that the government may have a “legitimate interest in regulating” even though it may not be entirely based in India or may be carried out by non-Indian entities that do not have a presence in India.
- The committee set limits on this extended jurisdiction, though, saying that the law should not be so wide as to constitute an unnecessary interference with the jurisdiction of other countries or have the effect of making it a general law of the Internet.