1 . India accounted for 6% of global malaria cases and 7% of deaths caused by it in 2016 – WHO
- India accounted for 6% of global malaria cases and 7% of deaths caused by it in 2016, according to a report by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
- In contrast, Maldives, Sri Lanka and Kyrgyzstan achieved malaria-free status in 2015 and 2016 respectively.
- There were an estimated 4,45,000 deaths from malaria globally in 2016, compared with 4,46,000 estimated deaths in 2015.
- About 80% of the deaths were accounted for by 15 countries, namely India and 14 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- India and Nigeria, two major contributors to the global burden of malaria, were able to detect only 8% and 16% of cases respectively via the system.
- Moreover, 51% of Plasmodium vivax cases — the milder cousin of the P. falciparum — were traced in India. This could at least be partially explained by resistance to chloroquine, the first line treatment to P. vivax infections that has been detected in pockets of the country earlier this decade.
- For a long time, P. falciparum dominated India’s case burden and, though its share has decreased, there is a slight increase in malaria cases by other parasites.
Bhutan, Nepal, Thailand, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Indonesia, says the WHO, are among the countries poised to reduce malaria incidence by over 40% by 2020. India — due to low funding per person at risk and resistance to certain frontline insecticides — is only expected to achieve a 20%-40% reduction.
In 2016, an estimated Rs. 13,000 crore was invested in malaria control and elimination efforts globally by governments of malaria endemic countries and their international partners. The majority (74%) of investments in 2016 was spent in the WHO’s Africa region, followed by the WHO regions of Southeast Asia (7%), the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas (each 6%), and the Western Pacific (4%).
Malaria in India
- Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases.
- Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas.
- Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction.
- The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors.
- Malaria control policies are developed nationally via the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP).
- The key components of the Indian malaria control strategy for P. vivax and P. falciparum are as follows:
• Surveillance and case management
• Integrated vector control
• Epidemic preparedness and early response
• Supportive interventions, including behavior change communications and monitoring and evaluation
- Parasitologically confirmed P. vivax cases are given a 3-day course of chloroquine to treat the acute blood stage infection plus a 14-day course of primaquine to clear the dormant hypnozoite stage (radical cure).
2 . GES 2017
- India has moved up one place to the 68th spot on the Global Entrepreneurship Index , which is topped by the US.
- India was at the 69th position last year.
- The list was prepared for 137 countries in the world.
- Each country is ranked according to its GEI score to indicate overall entrepreneurship attitude and potential. India was at 76th position in 2014.
- The Global Entrepreneurship Index is prepared by Global Entrepreneurship Development Institute (GEDI), a Washington, DC-based policy development organisation dedicated to expanding economic opportunities for individuals, communities and nations.