Morning News 7th Dec 2017

1 .  Environmental  crimes  declined  by  8% – NCRB

  • The data released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) recently have shown a decline of over 8% in environmental crimes across the country.
  • A total of 4,732 environmental crimes were recorded in 2016, marking a decline from 5,156 offences in the same category in 2015.
  • Like in 2015, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh remained the highest contributor — about 75% — to all environmental crimes reported in 2016.
  • With 2,130 cases, Uttar Pradesh contributed to 45% of all cases, while Rajasthan recorded 1,381 cases, accounting for 29.2% of all crimes related to environment.
  • Most of the crimes related to environment were reported under the Indian Forest Act, 1927 — 3,715 cases accounting for 78% of all environment-related crimes.
  • Delhi, which is reeling under severe air pollution for the past few weeks, did not record a single case under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, in 2016.
  • In 2016, 8,387 persons were arrested for environmental crimes.
  •  Uttar Pradesh made 4,806 arrests (57%) for environment crimes, while 1,666 persons — about 20% — were arrested from Rajasthan.

WHAT  ARE  ENVIRONMENTAL  CRIMES ?

Environmental crimes include offences related to Indian Forest Act, 1927, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986, Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, and Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

 

2 . UP  become’s  the  first  State  to  endorse  triple talaq  draft  bill

  •  Uttar Pradesh has become the first State government to endorse draft bill that makes instant triple talaq a cognisable and non-bailable offence.
  • The Centre had asked the States to send their views on it by December 10.
  •  The bill is to be introduced  in the winter session of Parliament.

ABOUT  THE  DRAFT  BILL

  • As per the draft, triple talaq or talaq-e-biddat will be a “cognisable and non-bailable” offence punishable with three years’ imprisonment.
  • The wife will be entitled to maintenance and the custody of children if they are minor.
  • The Supreme Court on August 22 struck down triple talaq, calling it unconstitutional and in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution, which provides for equality before the law.

OPINIONS  ABOUT  THE  BILL

  • All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) questioned the need for making the law when the court had already termed triple talaq unconstitutional .They have asked “In the draft, there is a provision of three-year jail to the husband and compensation to the wife. When the husband goes to jail, how will he pay the compensation”.
  • All India Muslim Women’s Personal Law Board has said that before finalising the bill, the organisation which worked against triple talaq should have been consulted.
  • The All India Shia Personal Law Board welcomed the  government’s decision to enact a law to end triple talaq.

 

3 . Courts  can  decline  child  repatriation  in  cases  of international  parental  child  abduction – SC

  • A Supreme Court judgment delivered recently accords courts in India unlimited discretion to determine which parent should have the custody of minor children involved in international parental child abduction.
  • The verdict holds that Indian courts can decline the relief of repatriation of a child to the parent living abroad even if a foreign court, located in the country from where the child was removed, has already passed orders for the child’s repatriation.
  • A Bench of Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra and Amitava Roy held that the welfare of the child was the “paramount and predominant” consideration when such a case came up before a court here.
  • The judgment, authored by Justice Roy, observed that welfare of the child came first over the repatriation order of the foreign court as India was not a signatory to the Hague Convention of “The Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction”. “The principle of comity of courts is not to be accorded a yielding primacy or dominance over the welfare and well-being of the child,” the court held.
  • A court, regardless of the repatriation order of the foreign court concerned, can refuse repatriation to the parent settled abroad if it is “satisfied” that the child is already settled in its “new environment” in India or if repatriation would expose the child to physical harm or if the child would be placed in an “intolerable or unbearable situation” back with the parent settled abroad, and finally, if the child, on attaining maturity, objects to going back.

WHAT  IS  PRINCIPLE  OF  COMITY  OF  COURTS ?

In law, comity is “a practice among different political entities (as countries, states, or courts of different jurisdictions)” involving the “mutual recognition of legislative, executive, and judicial acts.”

 

4 . International  Solar  Alliance  comes   into legal, independent existence 

  • India’s global initiative, the International Solar Alliance (ISA) that aims at increasing solar energy deployment in member countries, came into legal, independent existence Wednesday.
  • It is the first treaty-based international intergovernmental organisation to be based out of India.

WHAT  IS  ISA ?

  • The ISA is an Indian initiative, jointly launched by PM Narendra Modi and the president of France on 30th November 2015 in Paris, on the sidelines of COP-21, the UN climate conference.
  • So far, 19 countries are part of the pact — Bangladesh, Comoros, Fiji, France, Ghana, Guinea, India, Mali, Mauritius, Nauru, Niger, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Tuvalu, Australia, Cuba, Malawi and Peru.
  • The ISA, also sees itself as on a mission to mobilise more than $1000 billion in investments needed by 2030 for “massive deployment” of solar energy, pave the way for future technologies adapted to the needs of moving to a fossil-free future and keep global temperatures from rising above 2C by the end of the century.
  • India has committed itself to having 175,000 MW of renewed energy in the grid by 2022.
  • As part of the agreement, India will contribute $27 million (Rs. 175.5 crore approx) to the ISA for creating corpus, building infrastructure and recurring expenditure over five years from 2016-17 to 2020-21.
  • In addition, public sector undertakings of the Government of India, Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) and Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), have made a contribution of $1 million (Rs. 6.5 crore) each for creating the ISA corpus fund.

 

5 . Chennai, India’s Detroit, struggles 

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  • Nicknamed the “Detroit of India” for its auto industry, Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu, is at risk of taking on another characteristic of the American city — the demise of a manufacturing powerhouse.
  • For India as a whole though, the ascent of less developed states could spell a future of more balanced, sustainable growth where regional rivalries fuel productivity gains, much as they have in the other giant economies of the US and China.
  • For a host of reasons, parts of South India developed more rapidly than the northern states post-independence.This trend may now be changing on account of the government’s push to have states compete for business and investments, with the goal that in the end all of India will benefit.
  • Andhra Pradesh and the newly-formed state of Telangana are among the fiercest competitors for new industry. With huge tracts of rural land available, they can bid aggressively for new industry.

Diminishing Power

  • That’s little comfort to businesses in Tamil Nadu, India’s most industrialized state and long a destination for global manufacturers.
  • Political shifts and policies such as the GST have dented the region’s momentum, while a drop in remittances from workers in the Gulf has been most notable here.

Southern Might

  • India’s southern states — Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Kerala and Karnataka — have long enjoyed better social indicators than poor northern states such as Bihar or Uttar Pradesh.
  • Numbers tell the story: Andhra Pradesh, with a population of 50 million, has more factories than Uttar Pradesh, home to more than 200 million people.