It is a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath.
The first two verses of the song were adopted as the national song of India in 1947 when India became independent though it had inspired independence movement for the past five decades.
An Ode to Durga as the Mother goddess, it was written in Sanskrit but printed in Bengali script in the Bengali novel Anandmath.
The title ‘Vande Mataram’ literally means “I praise the Mother” or “I bow to the Mother”.
The “mother goddess” in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people – Bangamata (Mother Bengal) and Bharat Mata(Mother India), though the text does not mention this explicitly.
It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress