- Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.
- Petcoke is the coke that, in particular, derives from a final cracking process–a thermo-based chemical engineering process that splits long chain hydrocarbons of petroleum into shorter chains—that takes place in units termed coker units.(Other types of coke are derived from coal.)
How Petroleum coke is produced ?
Coke is made by heat-treating the residual oil (more accurately described as tar) to a temperature high enough to result in its polymerization to form a non-melting solid carbon. The process is performed to maximize the yield of lower molecular weight compounds derived from crude oil feedstocks.
Petcoke is also produced in the production of synthetic crude oil, or syncrude from bitumen extracted from Canada’s oil sands and from Venezuela’s Orinoco oil sands.
Green Petroleum coke
Coke, as it is removed from the coking process, is referred to as green coke. Green petroleum coke contains approximately 15-20% residual hydrocarbon materials. These hydrocarbons are those compounds that do not polymerize in the coking process and cannot be removed from the coke substrate due to process limitations.
Calcined petroleum coke (CPC)
Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) is manufactured by heating green coke to approximately 1300-1400 C in a rotary kiln. This affects the removal of virtually all residual hydrocarbons and moisture. The final calcined product contains only a trace of volatile matter, and 0.3-6% sulfur, depending on the petroleum base used to make the coke. Calcined and green petroleum cokes are inherently low in ash constituents. The fixed carbon content of most calcined petroleum coke products ranges from approximately 97-99.5%.
Uses of Petroleum coke
Petroleum coke is used in applications where high quality non-graphitic carbons are required. Some applications for petroleum coke include foundry products, wear moderators for PTFE compounds, rubber compounds, reducing reagents, ceramic packing media, oxygen exclusion from molten materials, manufactured carbon shapes, alloys, cathodic backfill, drilling additives, case hardening, seals, mechanical carbons, and flooring.