UPSC 2016

QUES 1 . Consider the following pairs :

Terms sometimes seen in the news  – Their origin
1. Annex—I Countries –  Cartagena Protocol
2. Certified Emissions Reductions – Nagoya Protocol
3. Clean Development Mechanism – Kyoto Protocol
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer – c


QUES 1 . With reference to Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety consider the following statements –

1 . It is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity

2 . It entered into force on 11 September 2003.

Which among the above statements is /are correct ?

a . 1 only

b . 2 only

c . both 1 & 2

d . none of the above

Answer – c

QUES 2 . Which among the following is associated with Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety-

1 . Advance Informed Agreement (AIA)

2 . Biosafety Clearing-House

3 . Precautionary principle

4 . Clean Development Mechanism

Select the correct code-

a . 1 , 2 , & 3

b . 1 , 2  &  4 

c . 2 , 3  &  4

d . 1 , 2 , 3 & 4

Answer – d


The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.

It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003.

The Protocol had 171 parties.

Objective of the Protocol

1 . The objective of the Protocol is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of ‘living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology’ , taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements .

2 . The Protocol also seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.

What are Living modified organisms (LMOs)?

The protocol defines a ‘living modified organism’ as any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology . Common LMOs include agricultural crops that have been genetically modified for greater productivity or for resistance to pests or diseases . Overall the term ‘living modified organisms’ is equivalent to genetically modified organism.

Safeguards in the Protocol

1 . Advance Informed Agreement (AIA)

It establishes an Advance Informed Agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory.


2 . Biosafety Clearing-House

The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol.

3 . Precautionary principle

The Biosafety Protocol makes clear that products from new technologies must be based on the precautionary principle and allow developing nations to balance public health against economic benefits. It will for example let countries ban imports of genetically modified organisms if they feel there is not enough scientific evidence that the product is safe and requires exporters to label shipments containing genetically altered commodities .


The governing body of the Protocol is called the Conference of the Parties to the Convention serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Protocol (also the COP-MOP). The main function of this body is to review the implementation of the Protocol and make decisions necessary to promote its effective operation.


The Protocol applies to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health