First go through the text (given after the questions) and then attempt the questions.

QUES 1 .Consider the following statements about  Montreal Protocol-

1 . It was agreed on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989

2 . The first meeting to the Montreal Protocol was held in Stockholm, May 1989.

Which among the above statements is/are correct?

a . 1 only

b . 2 only

c . Both 1 and 2

d . Neither 1 nor 2

Answer – a

QUES 2 .Consider the following statements with respect to Kigali Amendment to the  Montreal Protocol-

1 . It was adopted on October 15, 2016.

2 .It is concerned with phasing down production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

3 . Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are potent destroyers of ozone layer.

Which among the above statements is/are correct?

a . 1 & 2

b . 1 & 3

c . 2 & 3

d . 1 , 2 & 3

Answer – a


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The Montreal Protocol, is a global agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS).

It was agreed on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989.

Need for the protection of stratospheric ozone layer

The stratospheric ozone layer filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation, which is associated with an increased prevalence of skin cancer and cataracts, reduced agricultural productivity, and disruption of marine ecosystems.

What the treaty is about?

The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that deplete stratospheric ozone. All of the ozone depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing only fluorine do not harm the ozone layer). Some ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are not yet controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including nitrous oxide (N2O).

Most successful international agreement

Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that “perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol”

Significance of  Montreal Protocol

1 . The Montreal Protocol has proven to be innovative and successful, and is the first treaty to achieve universal ratification by all countries in the world.

2 . Leveraging worldwide participation, the Montreal Protocol has sent clear signals to the global market and placed the ozone layer, which was in peril, on a path to repair. As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering

3 . Full implementation of the Montreal Protocol is expected to result in avoidance of  million of  cases of skin cancer, skin cancer deaths, cataracts ,etc.

4 . The Montreal Protocol’s Scientific Assessment Panel estimates that with implementation of the Montreal Protocol we can expect near complete recovery of the ozone layer by the middle of the 21st century.


On October 15, 2016, Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the Kigali amendment to phase down production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) worldwide. HFCs are widely used alternatives to ozone depleting substances such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), already controlled under the Protocol.

Produced mostly in developed countries, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) replaced CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs pose no harm to the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine. They are however greenhouse gases, with a high global warming potential (GWP), comparable to that of CFCs and HCFCs.