M.I.C.S. CURRENT AFFAIRS 2nd JUNE 2018

1 . National Sports University Ordinance, 2018 

Reasons for being in news

National Sports University Ordinance, 2018 has come into force as the President of India has given his assent to the Union Cabinet’s decision to promulgate the said Ordinance.

Objective of the Ordinance

National Sports University will be established with headquarters at Manipur (in Koutruk, West Imphal district) by the Ordinance.

National Sports University Bill, 2017

National Sports University Ordinance, 2018 (“the Ordinance”) will be on the lines of the National Sports University Bill, 2017, introduced in Lok Sabha on 10.08.2017.

Background

The proposal was formally announced by the Finance Minister in his Budget speech of 2014-15 on 10.07.2014.

About National Sports University

This will be a specialized University, first of its kind, to promote sports education in the areas of sports sciences, sports technology, sports management and sports coaching besides functioning as the national training centre for select sports disciplines by adopting the best international practices.

Significance of National Sports University

The University would provide a boost to sports activities in the country, and also improve the country’s sports performance at the national and international levels. The proposed University has also considerable employment generation potential.

 

2 .  India’s First Advanced Forensic Lab dedicated to women related cases 

Reasons for being in news

Foundation of Sakhi Suraksha Advanced DNA Forensic Laboratory  in the campus of Central Forensic Science Lab, Chandigarh has been laid recently.

Background

Forensic science plays a vital role in the criminal justice delivery system by providing investigators with scientifically based information through the analysis of physical evidence. With increasing reports of crime against women such as sexual assault, foeticide, homicide etc. there is an increasing demand for better scientific analysis of physical evidence. Scrutiny by Hon’ble courts demands more admissible, accurate and powerful forensic proof for human individualisation.

Need of dedicated Sakhi Suraksha  Labs

To meet international standards and deliver timely justice to women, advanced forensic DNA laboratories with latest high throughput DNA technology, are required.

At present there are 6 Central Forensic Science Labs (CFSLs) in Chandigarh, Guwahati, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Pune and Bhopal and one State Forensic Science Lab in each State/UT. These labs are responsible for conducting forensic analysis of all cases in the country including sexual assault, criminal paternity and homicide.

A Joint Initiative

This project is a joint effort of Ministry of Home Affairs and WCD Ministry.

Structure of Sakhi Suraksha Labs 

In Sakhi Suraksha Advanced DNA Forensic Laboratory, four units are to be established to address cases related to women:

1 . Sexual Assault and Homicide Unit
2 . Paternity Unit
3 . Human Identification Unit
4 . Mitochondrial Unit

Apart from the Sexual Assault and Homicide Unit, the other three units are interlinked and will work to examine cases related to crime against women. Paternity Unit is essential to solve cases related to criminal paternity, gender selection & child swapping in hospitals. Human Identification Unit is important in cases of missing person or children. Mitochondrial Unit will conduct mitochondrial DNA analysis in cases where regular Nuclear DNA analysis is not possible such as in case of highly degraded samples. The Mitochondrial Unit can also be used to better explore family relationships.

Significance of Sakhi Suraksha Advanced DNA Forensic Laboratory

Forensic analysis plays critical role in criminal investigation and the Advanced Lab will contribute to address the gap in forensic DNA analysis of pending sexual assault cases in the country.

 

3 . Foreign Contribution (regulation) Act, 2010

Reasons for being in news

Recently an Online Analytical Tool has been launched to facilitate closer monitoring of the flow and utilisation of foreign contributions received by various organisations registered or permitted under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010.

Benefits of Online Analytical Tool

1 . This web-based tool enables decision-makers in various Departments of Government to scrutinise source of foreign funds and their actual use in India.

2 . It gives them capacity to take data-driven and evidence-based decisions regarding the compliance of the provisions of the FCRA, 2010.

3 . It has analytical features to conduct big data mining and data exploration.

4 . Its dashboard will be integrated with the bank accounts of the FCRA-registered entities through the Public Financial Management System for updation of transactional data on a real-time basis.

Background

There are approximately 25,000 active organisations registered under The FCRA, 2010. Foreign Contributions worth Rs.18,065 crores were received by such organisations from foreign donors for various social, cultural, economic, educational and religious activities during financial year 2016-17. Each FCRA-NGO conducts multiple financial transactions in receiving and spending the foreign contribution. Therefore, there are hundreds of thousands of such transactions annually which can be monitored effectively through this tool. It will, therefore, help the stakeholders in Government to better regulate acceptance and utilisation of foreign contributions.

About Foreign Contribution (regulation) Act, 2010

It is a consolidating act whose scope is to regulate the acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

 

4 . Shangri-La Dialogue

Reasons for being in news

Asia’s premier security summit is taking place in Singapore on 1–3 June 2018.

About Shangri-La Dialogue

The IISS Asia Security Summit: The Shangri-La Dialogue (SLD) is a “Track One” inter-governmental security forum held annually by an independent think tank, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) which is attended by defense ministers, permanent heads of ministries and military chiefs of 28 Asia-Pacific states. The forum gets its name from the Shangri-La Hotel in Singapore where it has been held since 2002.

Significance of the summit

1 . The summit serves to cultivate a sense of community among the most important policymakers in the defence and security community in the region.

2 . Government delegations have made the best out of the meeting by holding bilateral meetings with other delegations on the sidelines of the conference.

3 . While primarily an inter-governmental meeting, the summit is also attended by legislators, academic experts, distinguished journalists and business delegates.

4 . Shangri-La has contributed to the enhancement of defence diplomacy by participating countries, in part by inspiring similar forums in other regions (e.g. the Halifax International Security Forum).

 

5 . INDOPACOM

Reasons for being in news

The US military has renamed its Pacific Command to US-Indo Pacific Command, underlining the growing connectivity between Indian and Pacific Oceans.

About INDOPACOM

Formerly known as United States Pacific Command, it is a unified combatant command of the United States Armed Forces responsible for the Indo-Asia-Pacific region.

Background

The US move comes in the wake of a series of measures by China that have raised tensions in the South China Sea. China claims almost all of the South China Sea. Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan have counter claims over the area. The US also rejects China’s claims of ownership of the area.

The symbolic move came in recognition of the growing importance of the Indian Ocean in US strategic thinking.

 

6 . Japanese hunters kill 120 pregnant minke whales during summer months

Reasons for being in news

More than 120 pregnant whales were killed during Japan’s annual “research” hunt in the Southern Ocean last summer, a new report has revealed.

Report highlights

Of the 333 minke whales caught during the controversial 12-week expedition(early December to late February), 181 were female – including 53 immature ones. Figures show that of the 128 mature female whales caught in the hunt, 122 were pregnant.

Order of ICJ in 2014

In 2014, the international court of justice ordered a temporary halt to the annual slaughter of whales in the Southern Ocean, finding that the Japanese programme known as Jarpa II was not for for scientific purposes.

But Japan resumed whaling in the region two years later under a revamped whaling plan, that included reducing its catch quota to about a third(from 900 to 333).

Claims by Japan

Japanese government continued to claim that the Antarctic program is necessary to study the managing methods of minke populations and that hunting whale is “an ancient part of its culture”.

About  minke whales 

The minke whales are small whale which upon reaching sexual maturity (6–8 years of age) measure  an average of 6.9 m (males) and  8 m( females) in length. They are of two types-

1 . Common minke whale or northern minke whale.

2  . Antarctic minke whale or southern minke whale.