India’s first indigenous Lithium Ion Battery project

RELEVANCE – UPSC GS PRELIMS & GS MAINS – III

First go through the text (given after the questions) and then attempt the questions.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

QUES 1 . Consider the following statements with respect to Li-ion battery(LIBs) –

1 . Li-ion battery  is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the positive electrode to the negative electrode during discharge and back when charging.

2 . Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2).

Which among the above statements is/are correct?

a . 1 only

b . 2 only

c . Both 1 and 2

d . Neither 1 nor 2

Answer –b

QUES 2 . Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a . Lithium–sulfur batteries have the lowest performance-to-weight ratio.

b . Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide and  lithium titanate provide particular niche roles. 

c . Lithium iron phosphate or lithium ion manganese oxide battery offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of unfortunate events in real-world use

d . Lithium cobalt oxide battery offers high energy density but presents safety risks, especially when damaged.

Answer –a

QUES 3 . Central Electro Chemical Research Institute is situated at

a . Bangalore

b . Hyderabad

c . Karaikudi

d .  Mysore

Answer –c

India’s first indigenous Lithium Ion Battery project

Central Electro Chemical Research Institute (CECRI), Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu under Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) and RAASI Solar Power Pvt Ltd have signed a Memorandum of Agreement for transfer of technology for India’s first Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Battery project.

Currently, Indian manufacturers source Lithium Ion Battery from China, Japan and South Korea among some other countries. India is one of the largest importers and in 2017, it imported nearly 150 Million US Dollar worth Li-Ion batteries.

About Li-ion battery 

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery  is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

Lithium-ion batteries are common in home electronics. They are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, tiny memory effect and low self-discharge. LIBs are also growing in popularity for military, battery electric vehicle and aerospace applications.

Difference between rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium battery

Rechargeable Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery.  Intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell.

Lithium-ion battery types

Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics mostly use LIBs based on lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), which offers high energy density but presents safety risks, especially when damaged.

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, or LMO), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC) offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of unfortunate events in real-world use (e.g., fire, explosion, etc.). Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications.

Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO
2 or NCA) and lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO) are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the highest performance-to-weight ratio.

Li-Ion batteries applications

Li-Ion batteries have applications in Energy Storage System – from hearing aid to container sized batteries to power a cluster of villages, Electric Vehicles (2-wheeler, 3-wheeler, 4-wheeler and Bus), portable electronic sector, Grid Storage, Telecom and Telecommunication Towers, Medical Devices, Household and Office Power Back (UPS), Powering Robots in Processing Industry. Lithium-ion batteries can power any electrical application without the need of physical wires-means wireless.

Central Electro Chemical Research Institute

Central Electro Chemical Research Institute is one of a chain of forty national laboratories under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). It is situated at Karaikudi in Tamil Nadu.

CECRI has been recognized as the premier institution for research and development in electrochemical science and technology not only in India but also in the South East Asia

Major R&D programs at CECRI are in the areas of corrosion science and engineering, industrial metal finishing, batteries (primary and secondary), electrometallurgy, electropyrometallurgy, electrochemicals (organic and inorganic), Materials Science, and electrochemical instrumentation and pollution control.