RELEVANCE – UPSC GS PRELIMS & GS MAINS – I (Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.)
First go through the text (given after the questions) and then attempt the questions.
QUES 1 . Consider the following statements about Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai
1 . The Ensemble comprises of two architectural styles, the 19th century collection of Victorian structures and the 20th century Art Deco buildings along the sea
2 . It has been inscribed under Criteria (i) and (ii) as defined in the UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines.
3 . It is the first city in India to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
Which among the above statements is/are incorrect?
a . only 1
b . only 2
c . only 3
d . 2 & 3
Answer – d
Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai have been declared as a World Heritage Property by UNESCO in Manama, Bahrain on 30th June 2018.
It has been inscribed under Criteria (ii) and (iv) as defined in the UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines.
Second city in India to be inscribed
This makes Mumbai city the second city in India after Ahmedabad to be inscribed on the World Heritage List.
Rajabai Clock Tower as part of the Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai
India ranks sixth now
In the past 5 years alone, India has managed to get inscribed seven of its properties/sites on the World Heritage List of UNESCO . India now has overall 37 World Heritage Inscriptions with 29 Cultural, 07 Natural and 01 Mixed sites. While India stands second largest in number after China in terms of number of World Heritage properties in ASPAC (Asia and Pacific) region, it is overall sixth in the world.
About Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai
The Ensemble comprises of two architectural styles, the 19th century collection of Victorian structures and the 20th century Art Deco buildings along the sea, conjoined by means of the historical open space of the Oval Maidan. Together, this architectural ensemble represents the most remarkable collection of Victorian and Art Deco buildings in the world which forms the unique character of this urban setting, unparalleled in the world.
The Ensemble consists of 94 buildings with the Oval Maidan in the centre. The 19th century Victorian buildings form part of the larger Fort precinct situated to the east of the Oval Maidan.
University of Mumbai as part of the Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai
These public buildings include the Old Secretariat (1857-74), University Library and Convention Hall (1874-78), the Bombay High Court (1878), the Public Works Department Office (1872), Watson’s Hotel (1869), David Sasoon Library (1870), the Elphinstone College(1888), etc.
The Art Deco styled buildings to the west of the Oval Maidan were raised in early 20th century on the newly reclaimed lands at Marine Drive and symbolised the shift in expression to represent contemporary aspirations.
About Criteria (ii) and (iv) of UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines
The inscription has been done under Criteria (ii) and (iv) as defined in the UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines. Criterion (ii) refers to the important interchange of human values, over a span of time on development of architecture, monumental arts, town planning and landscape while Criterion (iv) refers to being an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates a significant stage (s) in human history.
For World Heritage Sites in India refer to the link