19. a .What do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support. (100 words) (5 marks)

19. b . The recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called ‘Phailin’. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world? Elaborate. (100 words) (5 marks)

20. a . Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world. (100 words) (5 marks)

20. b . What do you understand by the phenomenon of ‘temperature inversion’ in meteorology? How does it affect weather and the habitants of the place? (100 words) (5 marks)

21. Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 deg N latitudes and on the western sides of the continents. Why? (200 words) (10 marks)

22. a . Bring out the causes for more frequent occurrence of landslides in the Himalayas than in the Western Ghats. (100 words) (5 marks)

22. b . There is no formation of deltas by rivers on the Western Ghats. Why? (100 words) (5 marks)

23. a . Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in southern states of India? Discuss with justification. (100 words) (5 marks)

23. b . Analyze the factors for the highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India. (100 words) (5 marks)

24. With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world. (200 words) (10 marks)

25. It is said that India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of the country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resource does not appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved. (200 words) (10 marks)