UPSC GS PRELIMS 2014 ENVIRONMENT QUESTIONS

1 .Which of the following adds/add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on the planet Earth?

1 . Volcanic action
2 . Respiration
3 . Photosynthesis
4 . Decay of organic matter
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (c)

2 . In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with which of the following?

1 . Terrace cultivation
2 . Deforestation
3 . Tropical climate
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (b)

3 . Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of

(a) algae and bacteria
(b) algae and fungi
(c) bacteria and fungi
(d) fungi and mosses

Solution (b)

4 . The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of

(a) biosphere reserves
(b) botanical gardens
(c) national parks
(d) wildlife sanctuaries

Solution (a)

5 . With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1 . Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
2 . The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities, in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (d)

6 . Consider the following pairs

1 . Dampa Tiger Reserve : Mizoram
2 . Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary : Sikkim
3 . Saramati Peak : Nagaland
Which of the above pairs is /are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

7 . Wetlands :  Confluence of rivers

1 . Harike wetland : Beas and Satluj
2 . Keoladeo Ghana National Park :  Banas and Chambal
3 . Kolleru Lake :  Musi and Krishna
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (a)

8 . Which of the following have coral reefs?

1 . Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2 . Gulf of Kutch
3 . Gulf of Mannar
4 . Sunderbans
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (a)

9 . Consider the following:

1 . Bats
2 . Bears
3 . Rodents
The phenomenon of hibernation can be observed in which of the above kinds of animals?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) Hibernation cannot be observed in any of the above

Solution (c)

10 . Among the following organisms, which one does not belong to the class of other three?

(a) Crab
(b) Mite
(c) Scorpion
(d) Spider

Solution (a)

11 . Which one of the following is the correct sequence of a food chain?

(a) Diatoms-Crustaceans-Herrings
(b) Crustaceans-Diatoms-Herrings
(c) Diatoms-Herrings-Crustaceans
(d) Crustaceans-Herrings-Diatoms

Solution (a)

12 . If you travel through the Himalayas, you are likely to see which of the following plants naturally growing there?

1 . Oak
2 . Rhododendron
3 . Sandalwood
Select the correct answer using the code given below

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (a)

13 . If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects, disturbed by their movement through grasses, Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?

1 . Painted Stork
2 . Common Myna
3 . Black-necked Crane
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

Solution (b)

14 . Other than poaching, what are the possible reasons for the decline in the population of Ganges River Dolphins?

1 . Construction of dams and barrages on rivers
2 . Increase in the population of crocodiles in rivers
3 . Getting trapped in fishing nets accidentally
4 . Use of synthetic fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals in crop-fields in the vicinity of rivers
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (c)

15 . With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coal bed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following ‘statements:

1 . Coal bed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
2 . In India abundant coal bed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (d)

16 . In India, cluster bean (Guar) is traditionally used as a vegetable or animal feed, but recently the cultivation of this has assumed significance. Which one of the following statements is correct in this context?

(a) The oil extracted from seeds is used in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics
(b) The gum made from its seeds is used in the extraction of shale gas
(c) The leaf extract of this plant has the properties of anti-histamines
(d) It is a source of high quality biodiesel

Solution (b)

17 . With reference to technologies for solar power production, consider the following statements:

1 . ‘Photovoltaics’ is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while ‘Solar Thermal’ is a technology that utilizes the Sun’s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.
2 . Photovoltaics generates Alternating Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).
3 . India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for Photovoltaics.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None

Solution (a)

18 . There is some concern regarding the nanoparticles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?

1 . They can accumulate in the environment, and contaminate water and soil.
2 . They can enter the food chains.
3 . They can trigger the production of free radicals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (d)

19 . Which of the following are some important pollutants released by steel industry in India?

1 . Oxides of sulphur
2 . Oxides of nitrogen
3 . Carbon monoxide
4 . Carbon dioxide
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1, 3 and 4 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1,2, 3 and 4

Solution (d)

20 . Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Why is there some concern about their use?

1 . They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment.
2 . They are able to accumulate in humans and animals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (c)

21 . With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

(a) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.
(b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level
(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment.
(d) Both (a) and (b)

Solution (a)

22 . If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?

(a) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference.
(b) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilo meters from the edge of the wetland
(c) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed
(d) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’

Solution (a)

23 . With reference to a conservation organization called Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1 . It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
2 . It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)

24 . Consider the following international agreements:

1 . The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2 . The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
3 . The World Heritage Convention
Which of the above has / have a bearing on the biodiversity?

(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only,
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2. and 3

Solution (d)

25 . The scientific view is that the increase in global temperature should not exceed 2 °C above pre-industrial level. If the global temperature increases beyond 3°C above the pre-industrial level, what can be its possible impact/impacts on the world?

1 . Terrestrial biosphere tends toward a net carbon source
2 . Widespread coral mortality will occur.
3 . All the global wetlands will permanently disappear.
4 . Cultivation of cereals will not be possible anywhere in the world.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Solution (b)

26 . Consider the following statements:

1 . Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
2 . National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.
3 . National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (b)

27 . With reference to Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), consider the following statements

1 . It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
2 . It strives to conserve nature through action-based research, education and public awareness.
3 . It organizes and conducts nature trails and camps for the general public.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

28 . Consider the following statements regarding ‘Earth Hour’

1 . It is an initiative of UNEP and UNESCO.
2 . It is a movement in which the participants switch off the lights for one hour on a certain day every year.
3 . It is a movement to raise the awareness about the climate change and the need to save the planet.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only.
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution (c)

29 . Every year, a month long ecologically important campaign/festival is held during which certain communities/ tribes plant saplings of fruit-bearing trees. Which of the following are such communities/ tribes?

(a) Bhutia and Lepcha
(b) Gond and Korku
(c) lrula and Toda
(d) Sahariya and Agariya

Solution (b)

30 . Which one of the following is the process involved in photosynthesis?

(a) Potential energy is released to form free energy
(b) Free energy is converted into potential energy and stored
(c) Food is oxidized to release carbon dioxide and water
(d) Oxygen is taken, and carbon dioxide and water vapour are given out

Solution (b)