Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals’ accessibility to it, where accessibility includes affordability. According to Food and agriculture organization (FAO), Food security is made up of four pillars viz. Availability, Affordability, Nutrition, and Stability.
Availability –Food should be available in sufficient quantity at all times and at all places.
Affordability – Food should be affordable to poor people.
Nutrition – Food should be nutritious to ensure healthy development of body and mind.
Stability – Food prices and supply must be stable. Otherwise political and social unrest.
Measures taken by Governments to ensure food security in India
Union: MSP, fertilizer subsidy
States: cheap canal water and electricity
Together, they encourage farmers to produce more grains.
Through Targeted-PDS and National Food Security Act (NFSA), Government provides cheap grain to poor.
Through Mid-day meal, Food-security Act, Integrated-Child Development scheme (ICDS),etc., Government ensures nutritious food to children.
FCI keeps ‘buffer-stock’ of grains. It can be sold to open market or distributed among people during high inflation, natural disaster etc.