EQUATORIAL PLASMA BUBBLES

Equatorial plasma bubbles are an ionospheric
phenomenon near the Earth’s geomagnetic equator at night time. They affect radio waves by causing varying delays.

They degrade the performance of GPS . Different times of the year and location have different frequencies of occurrence.

Plasma bubbles form after dark when the sun stops
ionising the ionosphere. The ions recombine, forming a lower density layer. This layer can rise through the more ionised layers above via convection, which makes a plasma bubble. The bubbles are turbulent with irregular edges.