1. Solution (a)
Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts of Assam. It is famous for the golden langur and is the second protected habitat for golden langur in India.
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is located in Bhagalpur District of Bihar. The sanctuary is a 60 km stretch of the Ganges River from Sultanganj to Kahalgaon in Bhagalpur District. Designated in 1991, it is protected area for the endangered Gangetic dolphins in Asia. Once found in abundance, only a few hundred remain, of which half are found here.
CAFE or Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency/ Economy regulations are in force in many advanced as well as developing nations, including India. They aim at lowering fuel consumption (or improving fuel efficiency) of vehicles by lowering carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, thus serving the twin purposes of reducing dependence on oil for fuel and controlling pollution.
Corporate Average refers to sales-volume weighted average for every auto manufacturer. The norms are applicable for petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG passenger vehicles. CAFE regulations in India came into force from April 1, 2017. Under this, average corporate CO2 emission must be less than 130 gm per km till 2022 and below 113 gm per km thereafter.
Recently scientists from the University of Kerala have decoded the genetic make-up of Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus), a highly potent medicinal plant endemic to the Agasthya hills.
This ‘miracle plant’ is known for its traditional use by the Kani tribal community to combat fatigue. Studies have also proved its varied spectrum of pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumour, anti-ulcer, anti-hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective and anti-diabetic.
Recently, the Andhra Pradesh Government has constituted a seven-member committee for fulfilment of norms required for proposing the Godavari Mangroves at Coringa, as a World Heritage Site.
The sanctuary is a part of the Godavari estuary and has extensive mangrove and dry deciduous tropical forest. It is the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India.
About half of the area is the backwater . The rivers Coringa and Gaderu and their deltaic branches intersect the region.
It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture.
The Chhattisgarh government is processing habitat rights for Abujh Marias, a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG).
Since AbujhMarias is a PVTG community, they are entitled to the habitat rights under FRA.
Abujhmarh, where this tribe lives, is considered by the government to be one of the last remaining strongholds of Left-wing extremism.
Abujh Marias have their own governance structure.
The Abujhmarh forest is spread over 1,500 square miles in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.
The FRA has a provision that says, “In view of the differential vulnerability of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PTGs) among the forest dwellers, the District Level Committee should play a pro-active role in ensuring that all PTGs receive habitat rights in consultation with the concerned PTGs’ traditional institutions of these groups, after filing claims before the gram sabha”.
The Bonn Challenge is a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
It was launched in 2011 by the Government of Germany and IUCN, and later endorsed and extended by the New York Declaration on Forests at the 2014 UN Climate Summit.
Underlying the Bonn Challenge is the forest landscape restoration (FLR) approach, which aims to restore ecological integrity at the same time as improving human well-being through multifunctional landscapes.
Hope Island is a small tadpole shaped Island situated off the coast of Kakinada, India, in Bay of Bengal. It is a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.
It is a relatively young island, formed in the last 200 years into a 16-kilometre-long sand spit from the sand carried by the waters of Godavari delta.
The area between Kakinada coast and Hope Island is known as Kakinada Bay.
Hope Island protects the city of Kakinada from the strong storm surges coming from the Bay of Bengal. It acts as a natural break water and provides safety to the ships anchored in Kakinada bay which makes Kakinada Port one of the safest natural ports in the Eastern Coast of India.
The northern part of the island is called the “Godavari point” which overlooks the entry point into the Bay of Kakinada and the Kakinada harbour.
The sandy beaches of Hope island, along with the adjacent Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary are a nesting ground of the Vulnerable Olive Ridley turtle.