1. Solution (a)
Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts of Assam. It is famous for the golden langur and is the second protected habitat for golden langur in India.
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is located in Bhagalpur District of Bihar. The sanctuary is a 60 km stretch of the Ganges River from Sultanganj to Kahalgaon in Bhagalpur District. Designated in 1991, it is protected area for the endangered Gangetic dolphins in Asia. Once found in abundance, only a few hundred remain, of which half are found here.
Recently scientists from the University of Kerala have decoded the genetic make-up of Arogyapacha (Trichopus zeylanicus), a highly potent medicinal plant endemic to the Agasthya hills.
This ‘miracle plant’ is known for its traditional use by the Kani tribal community to combat fatigue. Studies have also proved its varied spectrum of pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumour, anti-ulcer, anti-hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective and anti-diabetic.
Recently, the Andhra Pradesh Government has constituted a seven-member committee for fulfilment of norms required for proposing the Godavari Mangroves at Coringa, as a World Heritage Site.
The sanctuary is a part of the Godavari estuary and has extensive mangrove and dry deciduous tropical forest. It is the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India.
About half of the area is the backwater . The rivers Coringa and Gaderu and their deltaic branches intersect the region.
It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture.
A team of scientists at Delhi-based National Institute of Plant Genome Research has unraveled the genomic diversity associated with aggressiveness of two Indian strains of Rhizoctonia solani, the fungal pathogen that causes the dreaded Sheath Blight disease in rice.
Sheath Blight disease is a major issue in rice cultivation.
It can cause up to 60 per cent reduction in rice yield.
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which was signed in Washington, D.C. in, 1946 to “provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry”.
In 1982 the IWC adopted a moratorium on commercial whaling. Currently, Japan, Canada, and a number of other nations oppose this moratorium.
The IWC allows non-zero whaling quotas for aboriginal subsistence and also member nations may issue ‘Scientific Permits’ to their citizens. Japan has issued such permits since 1986, Norway and Iceland whale under objection to the moratorium and issue their own quotas.
In 1994, the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary was created by the IWC.
Hope Island is a small tadpole shaped Island situated off the coast of Kakinada, India, in Bay of Bengal. It is a part of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.
It is a relatively young island, formed in the last 200 years into a 16-kilometre-long sand spit from the sand carried by the waters of Godavari delta.
The area between Kakinada coast and Hope Island is known as Kakinada Bay.
Hope Island protects the city of Kakinada from the strong storm surges coming from the Bay of Bengal. It acts as a natural break water and provides safety to the ships anchored in Kakinada bay which makes Kakinada Port one of the safest natural ports in the Eastern Coast of India.
The northern part of the island is called the “Godavari point” which overlooks the entry point into the Bay of Kakinada and the Kakinada harbour.
The sandy beaches of Hope island, along with the adjacent Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary are a nesting ground of the Vulnerable Olive Ridley turtle.