ENVIRONMENT FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-2

1 . Solution (d)

1. Nearly 70% of the wild tigers that inhabit the world are found in India.
2.According to All India Tiger Estimation Report for 2018 there are nearly 2967 tigers in India.

2.Solution (a)

Scaly-foot Gastropod or Scaly-foot Snail, also known as Sea Pangolin, is a species of deep-sea hydrothermal-vent snail, a marine gastropod mollusc.
This vent-endemic gastropod is known only from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean, where it has been found at depths of about 2,400–2,800 m.

In 2019, it was declared Endangered on the IUCN Red List, the first species to be listed as such due to risks from deep-sea mining of its vent habitat that also produce high-quality metal ores.

3. Solution (d)

Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve is composed of Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries

4.Solution (b)

Assam has added to India’s botanical wealth a plant that yields dragon’s blood — a bright red resin used since ancient times as medicine, body oil, varnish, incense and dye.
A team of researchers in Assam has discovered Dracaena cambodiana, a dragon tree species in the Dongka Sarpo area of West Karbi Anglong.

This is for the first time that a dragon tree species has been reported from India.

Dracaena cambodiana is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental tree. it is a major source of dragon’s blood, a precious traditional medicine in China. Several antifungal and antibacterial compounds, antioxidants, flavonoids, etc., have been extracted from various parts of the plant.

The Dracaena seeds are usually dispersed by birds. But due to the large fruit size, only a few species of birds are able to swallow the fruits, thus limiting the scope of its natural conservation.

THE HINDU JULY 24, 2019

5.Solution (a)

Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve

It extends across the states of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

About 68.1% of this reserve lies in the Bilaspur district in Chhattisgarh. The other major portions of the reserve are in the Anuppur (16.20%) and Dindori (15.70%) districts of Madhya Pradesh.

The protected area of the Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Bilaspur district within the Biosphere Reserve.

The topography of the biosphere reserve varies from the lowland rice fields in Bilaspur and Anuppur and the wheat fields in Dindori to the hills of the Maikal range of Satpuras.

The topography of the soil in the Amarkantak plateau is bauxite rocks.

The area of the Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve is considered to be one of the major watersheds of peninsular India. It separates the rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

The reserve is also the source of three major river systems: the Narmada, the Johilla and the Son River.

Maikal hill ranges together with Vindhya and Satpura lie within the Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve.

The forest area of the reserve has tropical deciduous vegetation and it can be classified into Northern Tropical Moist Deciduous and Southern Dry Mixed Deciduous forests.

6.Solution (c)

Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram is an initiative targeting livelihood generation for tribal population by harnessing the wealth of forest i.e. Van Dhan. The programme aims to tap into the traditional knowledge and skill sets of tribal people by adding technology and Information Technology for upgradation of output at each stage and to convert the tribal wisdom into a remunerative economic activity. Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram seeks to promote and leverage the collective strength of tribal people to achieve a viable scale.
Implementation of Van Dhan Vikas Karyakram is through Van Dhan Kendras.

7.Solution (b)

Odisha is the only State in India having all three species — gharial, mugger and saltwater crocodile.

8.Solution (d)

Henderson Island is an uninhabited coral atoll that lies almost exactly halfway between New Zealand and Peru, with 5,500 kilometres (3,400 miles) of the ocean in either direction.
Despite its extreme isolation, a freak confluence of geography and ocean currents means Henderson has one of the highest concentrations of plastic pollution on the planet.
Henderson lies at the centre of the South Pacific gyre, a vast circular ocean current that runs anti-clockwise down the east coast of Australia and up the west coast of South America.
The gyre should be a boon for the 10-kilometre-by-five speck of land, carrying rich nutrients into the waters surrounding Henderson to feed huge colonies of sea birds.
The atoll’s ecosystem is so rich that Henderson was included on the UN World Heritage List in 1988, with the body hailing it as an untouched paradise.

9 .Solution (c)

Special Rhino Protection Force (SRPF) is basically a tiger protection force named after the rhino since the threat of poaching is more for the one-horned herbivore.
This force has been raised at the initiative of National Tiger Conservation Authority for the conservation and protection of one horned rhinos from poachers.
Recently, an 82-member Special Rhino Protection Force (SRPF) was deployed in Kaziranga National Park .

10.Solution (d)

Vembanad Lake, a designated Ramsar site and one of the most polluted waterbodies in the world.
It is the largest brackish, humid tropical wetland ecosystem on the southwest coast of India, fed by 10 rivers and typical of large estuarine systems on the western coast, renowned for its clams and supporting the third largest waterfowl population in India during the winter months.