ENVIRONMENT FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-17

1 . Solution (d)

2 . Solution (a)

The majority of tropospheric ozone formation occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. NOx, CO, and VOCs are called ozone precursors. Motor vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, and chemical solvents are the major anthropogenic sources of these chemicals.
Sulphur Oxides are not involved in photochemical smog.

3 . Solution (b)

4 . Solution (b)

5 . Solution (c)

The IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio – economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change.
It is open to all member countries of the UN and WMO. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters.

6 . Solution (c)

Durban Declaration and Programme of Action- The DDPA reasserts the principles of equality and non-discrimination as core human rights, thus transforming victims of discrimination into rights-holders and States into duty bearers.

Bali Action Plan- The Bali Action Plan did not introduce binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but included the request for developed countries to contribute to the mitigation of global warming in the context of sustainable development. In addition, the Bali Action Plan envisaged enhanced actions on adaptation, technology development and on the provision financial resources, as well as measures against deforestation.

Cancum Agreement
The agreements, reached on December 11 in Cancun, Mexico, at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.

The Copenhagen Agreement is a document that delegates at the 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Accord
1. Endorses the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol.
2. Underlines that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and emphasises a “strong political will to urgently combat climate change in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities”
3. To prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, recognizes “the scientific view that the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degrees Celsius”, in a context of sustainable development, to combat climate change.

7 . Solution (b)
The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat is one of the missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change and aims to make cities sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste & shift to public transport.

8 . Solution (b)

9 . Solution (c)

10 . Solution (c)