ENVIRONMENT FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-18

1 . Solution (b)
Goal 1: No Poverty
Goal 2: Zero Hunger
Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being
Goal 4: Quality Education
Goal 5: Gender Equality
Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities
Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
Goal 13: Climate Action
Goal 14: Life Below Water
Goal 15: Life on Land
Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals

2 . Solution (c)
SO2 is not listed under hazardous gas list. It is widely used in industrial productions.

3 . Solution (b)

ECBC 2017 prescribes the energy performance standards for new commercial buildings to be constructed across India.

4 . Solution (c)

5 . Solution (a)

Aerosols impact cloud formations because water condenses on aerosol particles. It offset warming from greenhouse gases because it sends some of the sun’s radiant energy back to space and exerting a cooling influence on Earth’s climate.

6 . Solution (c)
Petroleum coke or pet coke is a solid carbon rich (90% carbon and 3% to 6% sulfur) material derived from oil refining. It is categorized as a “bottom of the barrel” fuel. It is a dirtier alternative to coal and emits 11% more greenhouse gases than coal. India is the world’s biggest consumer of petroleum coke. It is an approved fuel in many states such as Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat and Karnataka.

7 . Solution (d)

Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) also known as negative emission technologies refer to a number of technologies, the objective of which is the large-scale removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Among such technologies are bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, ocean fertilization, enhanced weathering, and direct air capture when combined with storage.

CDR is a different approach than removing CO2 from the stack emissions of large fossil fuel point sources, such as power stations. The latter reduces emission to the atmosphere but cannot reduce the amount of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere.

Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a future greenhouse gas mitigation technology which produces negative carbon dioxide emissions by combining bioenergy (energy from biomass) use with geologic carbon capture and storage.

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment. Biochar is a stable solid, rich in carbon, and can endure in soil for thousands of years. Like most charcoal, biochar is made from biomass via pyrolysis. Biochar is under investigation as an approach to carbon sequestration.

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

Ocean fertilization or ocean nourishment is a type of climate engineering based on the purposeful introduction of nutrients to the upper ocean to increase marine food production and to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. A number of techniques, including fertilization by iron, urea and phosphorus have been proposed.

8 . Solution (c)
The ozone hole is not technically a hole where no ozone gas is present, but is actually a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctica.

It is caused by CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform.
Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer prohibits the production and consumption of compounds that deplete the ozone layer.

9 . Solution (c)

10 . Solution (c)

The Talanoa Dialogue is a process designed to help countries implement and enhance their Nationally Determined Contributions by 2020. The Dialogue was mandated by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change to take stock of the collective global efforts to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases, in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement, which is to limit the rise in average global temperature to 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. The Dialogue was launched at COP 23 under the Presidency of the Republic of Fiji.