ENVIRONMENT FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-23

1 . Solution (a)

The National Policy on Biofuels-2018 envisages an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of bio-diesel in diesel by 2030.

2 . Solution (d)

The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel and “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G)- ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop- in fuels, Third Generation (3G) biofuels- bio-CNG

3 . Solution (d)

National REDD+ Strategy

National REDD+ strategies define a set of policies and programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, while enhancing carbon uptake from other REDD+ activities.

National REDD+ Strategy will be implemented by dividing country in 14 physiographic regions by Forest survey of India. It will cover all trees within forest areas and trees outside forest.

Funding for National REDD+ strategy will be made available through external sources such as Green Climate Fund, Devolution of funds to states as suggested by the Finance commission and through Compensatory Afforestation Fund.

National Governing Council of REDD+ chaired by the Union Environment Minister at the national level and two technical committees, headed by DG, Forest Survey of India and DG, ICFRE are being established for supporting the REDD+ implementation in the country. REDD+ actions at the State level will be coordinated by a committee headed by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF) & Head of Forest Force (HOFF) of the States.

4 .  Solution (d)

The onus of segregation lies on the generators. Responsibilities of Generators have been introduced
to segregate waste in to three streams, Wet (Biodegradable), Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, wood, etc.) and domestic hazardous waste.

The Rules are now applicable beyond Municipal
areas and extend to urban agglomerations, census
towns, notified industrial townships, areas under the
control of Indian Railways, airports, airbase, Port and
harbour, defence establishments, special economic
zones, State and Central government organizations,
places of pilgrims, religious & historical importance.

5 . Solution (a)

6 . Solution (c)

7 . Solution (d)

8 . Solution (b)

They have been serving as connectors for generations in Meghalaya.

9 . Solution (c)

They are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist.

10 . Solution (c)