ENVIRONMENT FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , TEST-31

Q 1 . Consider the following with respect to Mangroves:
1. They are sciophyptes
2. They have aerial roots
3. They are found in the buffer zone between land and sea
4. West Bengal has the highest mangrove cover in India
Select the correct code
a) 1,2 and 3
b) 1,2 and 4
c) 2,3 and 4
d) 1,3 and 4

Q 2 . Consider the following about Bioremediation:
1. Bioventing: Supplying air through well into contaminated soil to stimulate the growth of indigenous bacteria. It is used for simple hydrocarbons and can be used when contamination is deep under surface.
2. Biosparging: injection of air under pressure below the water table to increase the ground water oxygen concentration and enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants through indigenous bacteria.
3. Bioaugmentation: microorganisms are imported to a contaminated site to enhance degradation.
Which of the above terms are correctly defined?
a) 1 and 2
b) 3 only
c) 2 and 3
d) All of the above

Q 3 . Which of the following statements are correct about Ramsar Convention?
1. The convention was signed in 1971 in the city of Ramsar, Iran.
2. Only natural wetlands are included under Ramsar Convention.
3. Conference of Parties (CoP), is the Convention’s Governing body consisting of all governments that have ratified the treaty.
Select the code from below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) All of the above

Q 4 . There are two types of ‘Biogeochemical cycles’: the gaseous and the sedimentary cycles. Consider the following statements:
1. In the gaseous cycle, the main reservoir of nutrients is the atmosphere and the ocean.
2. In the sedimentary cycle, the main reservoir is the soil and the sedimentary and other rocks of the earth’s crust.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q 5 . Consider the following statements regarding Oxygen Cycle:
1. Oxygen is the main by-product of respiration process.
2. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are incorrect?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q 6 .  Consider the following statements:
1. Nitrogen can be fixed in the atmosphere by lightning and cosmic radiation.
2. Denitrification is the process of conversion of nitrogen into nitrates.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

Q 7 .  Which of the following are the type of temperate grasslands?
1. Prairies
2. Steppe
3. Savanna
4. Velds
Select the code from below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1,2 and 4
d) 3 and 4

Q 8 . Consider the following statements:
1. Genetic diversity exists within species only.
2. Naturally interbreeding can occur within species.
Select the correct statement(s) from above:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 and 2

Q 9 . Consider the following statements in regard to Aquatic Ecosystem:
1) Neustons are unattached organisms which live at the air-water interface
2) Nektons are organisms which remain attached to stems and leaves of rooted plants and substances emerging above the bottom mud
3) Planktons includes both microscopic plants like algae and animals like crustaceans and protozoans
4) Benthos or benthic organisms are those found living in the bottom of the water mass
Which of the above given statement(s) is/are correct?
a) 3 and 4 only
b) 1, 2 and 4 only
c) 1, 3 and 4 only
d) All of the above

Q 10 . Which among the following ecological terms is/are not true?
1) An Ecad is a population of individuals, which are genetically different.
2) The place where an organism lives, eats and reproduces is known as its Niche.
Select the appropriate code:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None