CULTURE FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-01

Ans. 1 . (b)

Though early Vedic period was marked by less materialistic accomplishment, towards later Vedic development of Agriculture led to material progress. So it is hard to tell about the architectural accomplishment of the entire time period.
Though destruction during war may be a potential reason, but it can not fully explain the complete absence of any architectural remains.
Lack of knowledge in stone and mortar resulted in most of the structures being of wooden, which could not survive through the change in climatic condition and physical wear and tear.

Ans. 2 . (d)

Terracotta is the term normally used for sculpture made in earthenware, and also for various utilitarian uses including vessels water and waste water pipes, bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction. The easier task of modelling,
typically with a limited range of knives and wooden shaping tools, but mainly using the fingers, allows the artist to take a more free and flexible approach.

Ans. 3 . (c)

The Mauryan pillars are rock-cut pillars.
Stone pillars were erected all over the Mauryan Empire with inscriptions engraved on them. The top portion of the pillar was carved with capital figures like the bull, the lion, the elephant, etc. All the capital figures are vigorous and carved standing on a square
or circular abacus. Abacuses are decorated with stylised lotuses.
These pillars were carved in two types of stone. Some were of the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura, the others of buff- coloured fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots quarried in the Chunar near Varanasi. The
uniformity of style in the pillar capitals suggests that they were all sculpted by craftsmen from the same region.

Ans. 4 . (c)

The Buddhist Stupas were built at places where Buddha’s remains were preserved and at the major sites where important events in Buddha’s life took place.
In Buddhist art and religion, the stupa came to be accepted as a short archite-ctural body, representing Buddha himself.
Symbolism
– The square base represents earth.
– The hemispherical dome/vase represents water.
– The conical spire represents fire.
– The upper lotus parasol and the crescent moon represents air.
The Circumambulation of the stupa is performed clockwise, keeping stupa always to the right, mimicking the motion of Sun.

Ans. 5 . (c)

Hoysala school developed in the southern region of Karnataka(AD 1050- 1300).It was developed in Mysore region with it’s distinctive style.Maturity in plan and arrangement is a majot feature. Kesava tempe at Belur is an important monument.
Instead of consisting of a simple inner chamber with it’s pillared hall, there are multiple shrines grouped around a central pillared hall and laid out in the shape of intricately designed star.

Ans. 6 . (b)

Exp: The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of
Maharashtra state of India are about 30 rockcut
Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE.
• They are entirely Buddhist. They find mention in the literature of Hiuen Tsang and Fa Hien.
• The caves are unique in that they combine three forms of art- architecture, sculpture and painting.
• The paintings sought their inspiration from Jataka stories.

Ans. 7. (c)

Exp: Image of Buddha in Sarnath belonging to late
5th century CE are made up of chunar sand stone.Buddha is shown seated on a throne in
Padmasana (Lotus posture), representing ”
Dharmachakrapravartana”.
• The panel below the stone depicts Chakra in the centre and deer in either side of the disciples.
• Folded legs are extended in-order to create a
visual balance. Drapery cling to body is transparent to create an effect of integrated volume.

Ans. 8 . (c)

Exp: The temples of Odisha date back to early 8th
century to 13th century and is one of the earliest movements of “Indo Aryan” architecture.The parabolic curve of the shikhara of the sanctum is a striking specimen of the style.
Famous temples are the Lingaraj temple, The
Mukteswar temple (Gem of Odishan architecture, The Sun temple of Konark, Puri Jagannath temple).

Ans. 9 . (c)

Exp: Located on the island of Elephanta off the Mumbai harbour, Elephanta caves are of 8th century.
Other famous features include Trimurti/ Threefaced image, marriage of Shiva Parvati, Bhairava, Tandava dance, Ravana shaking Kailasha.

Ans. 10 . (c)

Exp: Temples at Khajuraho are made up of locally
available sandstone. Lakshman temple depicts a full fledged style of this temple architecture, completed by 954AD, in the time of Chandellas.The temple plan is Panchayatana style.