M.I.C.S. CURRENT AFFAIRS MCQ 15th AUG, 2020

Q 1 . The RBI primarily earns its profits from
1 . Interest it gets from the purchase and sale of government securities (G-secs).
2 . Interest earned from lending to banks.
3 . Interest earned on bond holdings earned on open market principles. 
Codes:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 & 2
(d) 1 , 2 & 3

Solution (d)

Explanation

Why in news?

The RBI board has recently approved the transfer of Rs 57,128 crore as surplus to the central government for the accounting year 2019-20, while deciding to maintain the contingency risk buffer at 5.5%.

About sources of income of RBI

According to the RBI Act of 1934, section “Allocation of Surplus funds” mandates for any profits made by the Reserve Bank from its operations to be sent to the Centre.

The RBI primarily earns its profits from the interest it gets from the purchase and sale of government securities (G-secs), the interest earned from lending to banks and interest earned on bond holdings earned on open market principles. From this, the net profit is calculated by subtracting the operation expenditures, and other expenses as per the RBI Act.

Source : TIMES OF INDIA  ,  Aug 14 , 2020

Q 2 . Consider the following statements about National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA):
1 .  It has been set up under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
2 . Central Sector Scheme named Consumer Awareness, Publicity and Price Monitoring (CAPPM) has been launched under NPPA.
Which among the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 & 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)

Explanation

Why in news?

A Price Monitoring and Resource Unit (PMRU) has been set up in Karnataka under the aegis of National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA), Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India.

About Price Monitoring and Resource Unit (PMRU)

PMRUs are societies registered under the Societies Registration Act having its own Memorandum of Association/ Bye laws. The primary function of PMRUs is to assist NPPA in monitoring of prices of drugs, ensuring availability of drugs and raising consumer awareness.

PMRU function at the State level under the direct supervision of the State Drug Controller for increasing outreach of NPPA.

NPPA, under its Central Sector Scheme named Consumer Awareness, Publicity and Price Monitoring (CAPPM), has already set up of PMRUs in 12 States/ UTs. NPPA has plans to set up PMRUs in all the 36 States/ UTs. The expenses of PMRUs, both recurring and non-recurring are borne by NPPA under the Scheme.

Source : PIB   13th Aug , 2020

Q 3 . Consider the following statements about  salmonellosis:
1 . Salmonella bacteria resides in humans as an commensal organism.
2 . Salmonella enters humans through contaminated water or food.
Which among the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 & 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)

Explanation

Why in news?

Onions have become a cause of concern in the United States and Canada. Over the past week, health agencies in both countries have put out alerts asking its citizens to discard onions supplied by California-based Thomson International Inc, linking a salmonella bacteria infection with the bulb.

About salmonellosis

The salmonella bacteria resides in animals. When it enters a human body it causes salmonellosis, an infection that attacks the intestine, and can cause diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, bleeding in stool and nausea. The symptoms of the infection last anywhere between 2 and 7 days. However, bowel function could sometimes takes months before returning to normalcy. In some cases, it spreads the infection from the intestine to the blood stream.

The infection hits children, below the age of five, and senior citizens the worst. Less than 1 per cent of infected people succumb to the infection.

Salmonella can transmit to humans through contaminated water or food. In this case, the bacteria was transmitting through contaminated onions, cultivated by Thomson International.

Source : INDIAN EXPRESS  August 15, 2020

Q 4 . Which among the following are ways to clean up oil spills
1 .  skimming
2 . in situ burning
3 . releasing chemical dispersants.
Codes:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 & 2
(d) 1 , 2 & 3

Solution (d)

Explanation

Why in news?

Mauritius oil spill: A Japanese ship named M V Wakashio, which is owned by Nagashiki Shipping and operated by Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd, struck a coral reef resulting in an oil spill of over 1,000 tonnes into the Indian Ocean.

How dangerous are oil spills?

Oil spills affect marine life by exposing them to harsh elements and destroying their sources of food and habitat. Further, both birds and mammals can die from hypothermia as a result of oil spills. For instance, oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters. It also decreases the water repellency of birds’ feathers, without which they lose their ability to repel cold water.

How are oil spills cleaned?

There are a few ways to clean up oil spills. including skimming, in situ burning and by releasing chemical dispersants. Skimming involves removing oil from the sea surface before it is able to reach the sensitive areas along the coastline. In situ burning means burning a particular patch of oil after it has concentrated in one area.

Releasing chemical dispersants helps break down oil into smaller droplets, making it easier for microbes to consume, and further break it down into less harmful compounds.

Natural actions in aquatic environments such as weathering, evaporation, emulsification, biodegradation and oxidation can also help reduce the severity of an oil spill and accelerate the recovery of an affected area. But these occur differently in freshwater and marine environments.

Source : INDIAN EXPRESS  14th  Aug  2020

Q 5 . Consider the following statements about space bricks recently developed by team of researchers from the Indian Space Research Organisation, ISRO and the Indian Institute of Science, IISc in Bengaluru 
1 .The bricks have been made by using lunar soil, bacteria and guar beans.
2 . Guar gum is used instead of cement.
3 . The bacteria is added to crystalise the brick in any shape needed.
Which among the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 & 3
(c) 1 & 2
(d) 1 , 2 & 3

Solution (d)

Explanation

Why in news?

In a significant step towards space exploration, a team of researchers from the Indian Space Research Organisation, ISRO and the Indian Institute of Science, IISc in Bengaluru has developed a sustainable process to make space bricks on the lunar surface. The process enables making load bearing bricks by using lunar soil, bacteria and guar beans.

About Space bricks

Named as space bricks, it could be used to assemble structures for habitation on the moon surface in future. Sending bricks from Earth is not viable as it takes 7.5 lakh rupees to transport one pound of construction material.

The process developed now uses urea sourced from human urine, which could be mixed with lunar soil to build structures on the moon.

This decreases the overall expenditure considerably. Since guar gum is used instead of cement, there will be a lower carbon footprint. The bacteria is added to further crystalise the brick in any shape needed.

SOURCE : NEWS ON AIR   Aug 14, 2020