CULTURE FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-04

Ans. 1. (a)
Exp: The eighteenth and nineteenth century India
witnessed a new genre of painting popularly
known as ‘Company School of painting developed under Britishers.
Colonial rule introduced several new art forms, styles, materials and techniques which were creatively adapted by Indian artists for local patrons and markets, in both elite and popular circles.
European artists brought with them the idea of realism. This was a belief that artists had to observe carefully and depict faithfully what the eye saw.
European artists also brought with them the technique of oil painting. Oil painting enabled artists to produce images that looked real.
One popular imperial tradition was that of picturesque landscape painting.
Another tradition of art that became immensely popular in colonial India was portrait painting. Unlike the existing Indian tradition of painting portraits in miniature, colonial portraits were life-size images that looked lifelike and real. This new style of portraiture also served as an ideal means of
displaying the lavish lifestyles, wealth and status that the empire generated.
There was a third category of imperial art, called “history painting”. This tradition sought to dramatise and recreate various episodes of British imperial history, and enjoyed great prestige and popularity during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ans. 2. (d)

Ans. 3. (a)
Exp: There is some superimposition of paintings.
The earliest are in black; over these are red
ochre paintings and the last group comprises
white paintings.

Ans. 4. (b)
Exp: Chanderi and Ikat are styles of weaving.

Ans. 5 . (b)
Exp: The earliest examples of miniature painting in India exist in the form of illustrations to the religious texts on Buddhism executed under the Palas of the eastern India and the Jain texts executed in western India during the 11th-12th centuries A.D. The most important contributing factor was the symbolic use of colour. This School developed illustration on palm leaf and paper manuscripts and on their wooden covers This school is inspired by Vajrayana Buddhism characterized by sinus lines, subdued tones and simple composition. It is a naturalistic style which resembles the ideal forms of contemporary bronze and stone sculpture, and reflects some feeling of the classical art of Ajanta

Ans. 6 . (b)
Exp : Statement 1 is incorrect. Bani Thani belongs to Kishangarh school of Rajput painting.
Statement 2 is correct. It has been labelled as ‘Mona Lisa of India’.

Ans. 7 . (a)
Exp : Statement 1 is correct. The embellishments of semi-precious stones, pearls and glass pieces is a unique feature of Tanjore paintngs that give them a three-dimensional effect.
Statement 2 is incorrect. Tanjore paintings are not scroll paintings on cloth. They are done on solid wooden planks and hence known as ‘Palagai Padam’ where Palagai means wooden plank and padam means picture or painting.

Ans. 8 . (b)
Exp : Statement 1 is correct: The syle of Hamza-nama is more developed and refined than Tuti-nama. It shows Mihrdukht shooting arrows at the bird on a multi-staged minaret, from the upper storey of a pavilion. In this miniature one can observe that the architecture is Indo-Persian, the tree types are mainly derived from the Deccani painting and female types are adapted from the earlier Rajasthani paintings.
Statement 2 is correct: Tuti-nama appears to be the first work of the Mughal School. The style of painting in this manuscript shows the Mughal style in its formative stage.
Statement 3 is incorrect: It was Jahangir and not Shah Jahan who introduced a unique trend of decorated margins around the paintings that were sometimes as elaborate as the paintings themselves.

Ans. 9 . (d)
Exp : Statement 1 is incorrect. The Kerala style of Mural paintings predominantly depict religious and mystic themes. However, with its emphasis on dramatic scene and elaborate costume would seem to be parallel to the living performance art Kathakali, Koodiyattom and other forms of theatre of imagination.
Statement 2 is incorrect. The Kerala style of Mural paintings are considered unique for their colour and form. They stand out for their emphasis on beauty, clarity and symmetry.
Herbal vegetable dyes, fruit juices, minerals and chemicals extracted from the earth, stones, root and such natural materials are used for making the paint. Brushes for painting on the wall are made of the blades of certain types of grass and the roots of some trees. Sharpened bamboo pieces are used to draw the outlines of the murals.

Ans. 10 . (b)
Exp : Statement 1 is incorrect. The Kangra School of painting was developed after the decline of Mughal Empire. Hence, it can be considered as a post Mughal School of painting.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, many artists trained in the Mughal style migrated to the Kangra region as they got patronage by Raja Goverdhan Singh in 1774. It led to the birth of Guler-Kangra School of paintings. It first evolved in Guler then came to Kangra. This school reached its zenith under the patronage of Raja Sansar Chand. His paintings were marked with a sensuality and intelligence that the other school lack.
Statement 2 is correct. The Kangra School of paintings is a part of the Pahari style of painting. The Pahari style of painting developed in the sub-Himalayan states. There were many schools that flourished in smaller kingdoms, which came under the blanket of ‘Pahari Paintings’.
Statement 3 is correct.