CULTURE FOR UPSC PRELIMS 2020 , SOLUTION OF TEST-07

Ans. 1. (d)

Ans. 2. (a)

Exp: They worship five deities – Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, Ganesh, and Surya, as introduced by Shankara.

Main Writings are: Vedanta Sutra; Upanishads and Shariraka Bhasya.

Important Places are: Badrinatha; Puri; Sringeri;
Dvaraka and Kanchipuram.

Smartas follow the Hindu scriptures. These include the Shruti but most markedly the smriti literature.

Ans. 3. (b)
Exp: First Buddhist Council: Objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings and monastic rules.

Ans. 4. (d)
Exp: Though the Jains did not deny the existence
of God, they simply ignored him. The world for Jains is not created, maintained or destroyed by a God but functions through a universal or eternal law. The universe is eternal. According to Jainism salvation is
possible only by abandoning all possessions, a long course of fasting, self-mortification, study and meditation. Hence, the monastic life is essential for salvation.

Ans. 5. (a)
Exp: According to the Jainism, Atman and Brahman is eternal truth. However, Buddhism rejected the theory of Atman and Brahman.

Ans. 6. (d)
Exp: The Third Buddhist council was convened in
about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Ashoka. The traditional reason for convening the Third Buddhist Council is reported to have been to rid the Sangha of corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views.

Ans. 7. (a)
Exp: Zoroastrians are not fire-worshippers. Zoroastrians believe that the elements are pure and that fire represents God’s light or wisdom.

Ans. 8. (c)
Exp: The wheel represents the dharmachakra, to
halt the cycle of reincarnation through the pursuit and practice of spiritual truth of our universe.

Ans. 9. (b)

Ans. 10. (d)
Exp: In his hymns and teachings Guru Nanak
advocated a form of nirguna bhakti. He rejected sacrifices, ritual baths and austerities. For him the Absolute or ‘Rab” had no gender or form